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Table 1 Supervision characteristics (main studies reported in alphabetical order)

From: Empirical research in clinical supervision: a systematic review and suggestions for future studies

Publication Therapy Set-ting Main mental health problem SV manual or SVor training Profession SVor Therapy manual or SVee training Profession SVee Competence level SVee (%) Supervision
Und Grad Post PhD Interven-tion Frequency Con-tact For-mat Tech-nology
Anderson (2012) [31] PD O Depr, anx Manual authors Manual, instruction, video examples Licensed PST 100 CD Weekly / 1,5 yrs F-t-f Gr Audio, video
Bambling (2006) [32] PST O Major depr Workshop, manual Graduated in mental health, experienced Workshop, manual PS, PST, MHW, SW 20 75 5 CD 1 pre-PST + 7 weekly F-t-f Ind
Davidson (2017) [33] Psychol-Therapy O Depr, anx, stress PS, MHW PS, MHW FBO F-t-f Ind
Grossl (2014) [34] Mixed O Mental disorders PhD (PS, MFT) Clinical PS, MFT, CS 68 32 FBO 16 weekly F-t-f Ind
Hiltunen (2013) [35] CBT O Minor mental health problems PST, experienced Training PS 100 3 weekly F-t-f Gr Audio,video
Locke (2001) [36] Mixed O Licensed Training CD, FBP Live Gr Video, phone
Lu (2012) [37] CBT O Comorbid PTSD Workshop PhD (PS) Workshop PS, CS, NU, SW 4 92 4 CD, FBP, RP, expert call 12-16x/weekly F-t-f Gr Audio
Martino (2016) [38] MI O Substance abuse Workshop, manual, textbook Certified, licensed CS Workshop, manual, textbook Substance abuse CS 9 14 68 1 FBP, coaching On average 6.5x F-t-f Ind Audio
Milne (2011) [39] CBT O Depr, anx Manual, training Licensed PS CBT training PS 50 50 RP, FBP, others 37x / 11 months F-t-f Ind Audio
Ng (2007) [40] CBT O Medication-resistant psychosis Certified PT, the CBT trainer Manual, lectures NU, SW 75 25 CD, RP Weekly / 6 months F-t-f Gr Video
Rizvi (2016) [41] DBT O BPD Licensed clinical PS / DBT expert / study author Training, seminars Clinical PS 100 FBP 5x weekly BITE Ind PC, webcam
Smith (2012) [42] MI O, I Substance abuse Workshop PhD (clinical PS) Workshop Substance abuse CS 28 31 40 CD, coaching 5x / 7 weeks Live Ind Earpiece, phone
Weck (2016) [43] CBT O Depr, anx Technical instruction Licensed clinical PS & SVors CBT training Clinical PS 100 CD, FBP 6x monthly F-t-f, BITE Ind PC, webcam
Willutzki (2005) [44] CBT O Affective disorders, anx Training PS 100 Every 4th session F-t-f Ind
Zarbock (2009) [45] CBT O Affective & phobic disorders, others Experienced Training PS 100
  1. SV supervision, SVsor supervisor, SVee supervisee; − not applicable or no information, PD psychodynamic, PST problem-solving therapy, CBT cognitive behavior therapy, DBT dialectical behavior therapy, MI motivational interviewing, Mixed different approaches, Psychol-Therapy psychological therapy, not specified, O outpatient, I inpatient; Depr depression, Anx anxiety, PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder, BPD borderline personality disorder, PST psychotherapist, PS psychologist, MHW mental health worker, SW social worker, MFT marriage and family therapist, CS counselor, PT psychiatrist, NU nurse, Und undergraduate, no degree, student, Grad graduate, Bachelor degree, Post postgraduate, Master’s degree, PhD doctoral degree, CD case discussion, FBO feedback on patient outcome, FBP feedback on performance, RP role play, coaching provide model behavior, suggest statements, F-t-f face-to-face, BITE bug-in-the-eye, Gr group, Ind individual