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Table 1 The Child Physical Abuse (CPA)-risk group characteristics

From: Less efficient detection of positive facial expressions in parents at risk of engaging in child physical abuse

  Low CPA Risk (n = 39) High CPA Risk (n = 13)
Mean SD % Mean SD %
Demographic Characteristics
 Age (years) 35.6 (4.6)   35.2 (2.5)  
 Education (≥ 12 years)    100.0    100.0
 Married    97.4    100.0
 Number of family members 4.4 (1.3)   5.2 (1.3)  
 Number of children 1.9 (0.6)   2.6 (0.9)  
 Time since last childbirth (months) 39.5 (21.3)   37.8 (18.5)  
  Gender of child (female)    47.4    42.9
  Health problems of child    30.8    46.2
 Living above the relative poverty line    100.0    100.0
Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire
 Anger 13.9 (4.0)   17.2 (4.9)  
 Hostility 15.3 (3.8)   17.0 (4.0)  
 Physical aggression 12.6 (4.0)   14.9 (4.9)  
 Verbal aggression 14.2 (2.9)   13.3 (2.4)  
Interpersonal Reactivity Index
 Perspective-taking 17.3 (3.4)   16.2 (3.7)  
 Empathic concern 18.0 (3.2)   18.2 (2.7)  
 Fantasy 13.6 (3.0)   13.3 (3.3)  
 Personal distress 13.9 (4.4)   13.4 (5.0)  
Parenting Stress Index
 Child domain scores 85.1 (17.9)   97.5 (16.6)  
  C1: Reinforces parent 11.1 (3.2)   12.9 (3.1)  
  C2: Mood 18.5 (4.8)   22.5 (4.1)  
  C3: Acceptability 10.0 (3.0)   12.9 (4.2)  
  C4: Distractibility/Hyperactivity 14.8 (3.9)   16.3 (2.9)  
  C5: Demandingness 12.9 (4.2)   12.8 (2.5)  
  C6: Problems/worries 8.9 (3.1)   11.0 (4.6)  
  C7: Sensitivity to stimuli 8.9 (3.4)   9.2 (2.0)  
 Parent domain scores 103.1 (22.6)   112.1 (28.2)  
  P1: Role restriction 20.3 (5.8)   21.6 (7.7)  
  P2: Social isolation 16.0 (5.3)   17.3 (6.4)  
  P3: Relationship with spouse 12.1 (5.4)   12.9 (5.7)  
  P4: Competence 21.9 (3.7)   23.5 (3.6)  
  P5: Depression 10.3 (3.6)   11.8 (3.9)  
  P6: Sad/uneasy feeling after leaving hospital 8.7 (3.2)   7.9 (3.7)  
  P7: Attachment 6.5 (2.2)   8.9 (3.1)  
  P8: Health 7.5 (2.4)   8.2 (2.6)  
Beck Depression Inventory-II 11.2 (7.5)   14.7 (13.2)  
Parental Bonding Instrument
 Maternal care 25.1 (9.3)   24.4 (7.1)  
 Maternal protection 12.3 (7.8)   10.4 (6.2)  
 Paternal care 23.4 (8.9)   23.5 (6.3)  
 Paternal protection 10.4 (7.2)   9.2 (5.8)