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Table 2 Frequency distribution of household dysfunction and abuse items

From: Multi-type child maltreatment: prevalence and its relationship with self-esteem among secondary school students in Tanzania

Household dysfunction and abuse item (Age below 18 years) Sex Total (N = 1000)
Male (n = 553) Females (n = 477)
Death of a parent/guardian 73 (57.9) 53 (42.1) 126 (15.1)
Separated/divorced parents 85 (54.1) 72 (45.9) 157 (18.8)
Household substance abuse 47 (54.0) 40 (46.0) 87 (10.4)
Household mental illness 72 (63.7) 41 (36.3) 113 (13.5)
Criminal household members 80 (55.6) 64 (44.4) 144 (17.2)
Saw or heard a parent or household member in the home being yelled at, screamed at, sworn at, insulted or humiliated 328 (58.3) 235 (41.7) 563 (67.3)
Saw or heard a parent or household member in the home being slapped, kicked, punched or beaten up 344 (58.5) 244 (41.5) 588 (70.3)
Saw or heard a parent or household member in the home being hit or cut with an object (stick, bottle, club, knife, whip) 195 (57.4) 145 (42.6) 340 (40.7)
If a parent, guardian or other household member threatened to or actually did abandon you or throw you out of the house 119 (61.0) 76 (39.0) 195 (23.3)
If a parent, guardian or other household member yelled or screamed at you or insulted or humiliated you 334 (57.7) 245 (42.3) 579 (69.3)
If a parent or other household member spanked, slapped, kicked, punched or beat you 380 (59.1) 263 (40.9) 643 (76.9)
If a parent, guardian or other household member hit or cut you with an object (stick, bottle, club, knife, whip, etc.) 126 (57.5) 93 (42.5) 219 (26.2)